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Portrait of M. Eif^l |l|. 





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SL_^^ *-5_ 

PARIS, 1889. 



Portrait of M. Eiffel 





Published hy F. C. Hagen &• Co. ,328, High Holborn, London, W.C- 



T^E'l^iFW^^roWRl uWlio'has aiorfeard of this 
stupendous -^liderti&iifg ? '^'What'e^r^^aay prove to 
be its merits, or otherwise, no one can deny that it is 
the greatest engineering work of the day, and as such 
it is an object of intense interest throughout the entire 
civihzed world. MiUions of visitors to the great 
Paris Exhibition will look upon it as one of the 
features of this great world's show. It is estimated 
that some three million visitors will be able to ascend' 
to its dizzy height, and from its summit of nearly 
1,000 feet look upon the great panorama stretched. 
around as>far as the eye will carry. ' ■ : ;-~: 

In issuing this little pamphlet our aim is to give- 
our readers an insight into the marvellous, engineering' 
skill !'bf, M:-\'Eij3iel's undertaking. The- information- 
has all" been very kiiidly furnished lis 'by M. Eiffely 
and in translating and compiling it for publication, 
we have purposely avoided comments, as it would go 
a long way beyond the scope of our little booklet. 
The opening chapter is a short resume of the con- 
cluding ones, which give the details and particulars 
which will doubtless be read with interest by those 
more closely acquainted with the technicalities of 
this great work. 

The portrait is a reproduction of a Photograph 
also kindly sent us by M. Eiffel. The view of the 
Tower itself will give an idea of its size by comparison, 
with the diagram we give. 

London, February, 1889. 




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Pamphlet wilh Medical Testimonials Etc., Post Free, on AppUcaticn. 




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Eofore we coninienco a more teclmical description of the Eiffel 
Tower, now reacliing its completion in Paris, we will give a 
general description of tltis undertaking, and also give a short 
biography of M. Eiffel. 

The height of this great wonder of the 19th century will 
when complete, be nearly 1,000 feet. When our readers bear in 
mind that St. Paul's Cathedral is only 404 feet high, the enormous 
difference is apparent. Further on we give the heights of 
some of the best known buildings in Europe. The entire structur® 
is built of iron, the total weight of which is some 7,531 tons — say 
15,062,000 pounds. Over 2,500,000 rivets will be required to put 
this gigantic structure together. 

The natural question will ari se what is to bo the use of t]i[^ 
Tower. Without entering into the scien tific value to which this 
Tower may lead, and the many scientific uses it may hereafter bo 
jiut to, we take it that first and foremost it will be one of, if 
uot, f/ie greatest feature of the Universal Exhibition opening on 
the 5th of May next. Secondly, it is undoubtedly a commercial 
enterprise, and we are bound to confess we see no reason why so 
much mud should have been thrown at M. Eiffel by part of the 
press, even if it turns out to have no further value. Assuredly', 
M. Eiffel, and those with him, have as much right to invest their 
money in the success of the Eiffel Tower as in any other 
commercial undertaking. 

It is calculated that about 25,000*' persons can ascend per 
■day, and taking the average cost per head to be 3fr. we have 
here alone a gross revenue of about 75,000 francs per day — 
away and apart from this there are many other minor sources of 
revenue, so that allowing "for all sorts of contingencies, some 
millions of francs may be netted by the spirited undertaker of 
-this work, ere yet the Paris Exhibition is a thing of the past. 
Why call a man mad and a fool, who has sufScient pluck and 
ingenuity to attempt something never before attempted. We 
■stiould rather blame, if blame be called for, the morbid taste of the 
present generation, the ever increasing craving for something 
new, startling and sensational, The supply follows the demand, 
and always will. 

The Tower stands some 300 yards off the south side of the 
Seine, near the Jena Bridge, and its base forms an immense 
archway over the main path leading from this bridge to tlie central 
grounds of the Exhibition. The Tower at its base covers an 
area of 107,584: square feet. 

The first floor will be devoted to cafes, restaurants, smoking 
room for ascenders, and as a look-out. The third floor will be 
the great look-out, or as some have called it, the " Alpine recep- 
tion room," over which comes the cupola, which again ia its turn 
-will offer the daring ones a still higher surface from which to 
look down on the world nearly a 1,000 feet below. It will be 
something to be able to say you have been to the top of this 
•enormous Tower. 

From the base to the second floor will be four lifts (a more 
minute description of which is given in a later portion of this 
work) and from the second floor to the top a further lift. 
The fares will be, up to the 1st floor, 2 francs 
J, „ 2nd flooi-, 3 francs 

„ „ Top floor, 6 francs 

The entire ascent -will take about 15 minutes. We give a 
view of the Tower and a diagram. Our readers will also notice 
that our advertising friends the " Patent Borax Co." have made 
-use of the Eiffel Tower, to illustrate the value of their Soap over 
all other similar productions. Not a bad idea. 

M. Gustav Eiffel is already well known as one of the ablest, 
boldest, and most famous French engineers, and was born in Dijon, 

* Extract from a letter dated 2ist January, 1S89. — "The lifts from ground 
to 2nd floor will carry 2,350.per hour, and from and floor to top 750 per hour. 
Total, say, 3,000 per hour — about 25,000 to 30,000 per day." 

in Burgundy, in 1832. i Educated at the Ecoie Centrale des Arts 

'Ct Mauufactures, and graduated at the age of 23. 

Immediately on leaving here M. Eiffel was engaged in the 

'building of the great metallic bridge at Bordeaux and at once gave 

■evidence of that indefatigable energy, boldness, and enterprise, 
which has never forsaken him and which are the marked' charac- 
teristics of the man. His remarkable capacities soon won for 
him golden opinions all over Europe, and he was engaged in 

succession on the following undertakings. At the age of 26 he 
was entrusted with the building of the Bridge over the Nive, in 
Bayonne, followed by the viaduct built on metallic piles at 

■Comyentry in Gannat, the viaduct at Vianna in Portugal, Tardes, 

(near Montlucon, Cubzao, Garabit, Douro Porto, the Eailway 

■ Stations of Buda Pesth, the Szegedm Bridge, &c., &c. 

Monsieur Eiffel's name was also prominently connected with 

•the Paris Exhibitions of 1867 and 1878 He further constructed 

the Great Cupola at the Observatory at Nioe.which although nearly. 

75 feet in diameter and weighing 100 tons a child can regulate 

On the other side of the Atlantic Monsieur Eiffel's name and 

. skill is associated with the great statute of Liberty, which graces 
the Harbour of New York. It is almost needless to add that 
decorations and honours have been literally showered upon this 
gTcat engineer We will here place on record our indebtedness to 
M. Eiffel for the very kind attention we have always received at 
his hands, and for tlie unvarying promptness with which he has in 
the midst of his stupenduous work replied to our many communi- 
cations on the subject of the Eiffel Tower We feel therefore that 
whatever credit there may be attached to this little work is entirely 
due to M.Eiffel and not to us, and shall ever remember with sincere 
pleasure the visit we paid to M. Eiffel's offices, and cm- tour of 
inspection of the great work now proceeding on the Champ de Mars 

-and shall most certainly hope to go up to the very summit of 
this Tower ere many weeks have passed, and wind and weather 
permitting, shall drink to the health and prosperity of the man, 

-whose ingenuity has enabled us to do so at something like 1000 
feet higher in the air than all around us. 





The building of this noble structure is now nearly iin fait 
accompli, and, of it, it may be said that the construction of 
no similar edifice has ever gone on more smoothly, has been 
subject to fewer delays in building, nor ultimately carried to -a 
more triumphant issue than has this magnificent monument 
which now stands a dignified reproach to the few who, in the- 
early days of its conception and building, were even wont to 
scoff at the bare possibility of such a Tower being erected. 

The strongly expressed opinions of eminent scientists and 
others that this Tower will prove to be of positive and actual 
utility, both in a scientific and practical sense, will before long^ 
bo put to the test ; meantime, the public will materially inclino 
towards the views of those who foresaw from the first that tbe- 
building of the Tower would be successfully accomplished rather 
than give credence to the opinions of people who had denied the 
possibility of Avhat has already been proved. 

We shall now endeavour to place before the reader a clear 
and succint history of this remarkable tower from the date- 
when M Eiffel conceived the idea of carrying into effect what 
had at different times been variously suggested in the form of 
a monnment of altogether exceptional height, to the day that 
sees the work nearly brought to a successful finish. 

M. Eiffel has never given particular training to his workmen and 
all the anxiety which has been given expression to has no sort of 
veritable basis. It was feared that workmen could not be found 
who would be able to sufficiently resist the sensation ot giddiness 
to carry out the erecting, but the experiments which he has mado- 
absolutely destroy all uncertainty on this head. M. Eiffel erected the 
highest viaducts there are in France, viz. : the Viaduct of Tardes 
near Montlucon, which is about 300 feet above the ground, and 
the Viaduct of Garabit, in Cantal, which is 124 metres (465 feet). 
His men who worked absolutely in the open and out of the perpen- 
icular, did not in way suffer from giddiness. 

Were the workmen specially trained? Certainly not. Thejr 


Avcro mostly luiskillcd peasants, yet they cfuickly adapted them- 
selves to work at those heights, although among them were s6mo 
very j^ouiig workmen. 

Neither M. Eifl'el hiihself, nor any of the engineers engaged 
Avith him in these enterprises ever felt any apprehension whatever. 
It is quite an error to siippose that the tehdenciy to giddiness 
increases with the height; the contary is the case. Allwho liavo 
experienced going up in a balloon Imotv this, even in a captive 
balloqn. Beyond this, in the' Tower the workmen do'notAvOik 
in the open as at the two viaducts in question, they staiid on a 
floor 15 metres square where they are as much at their ease 'as if 
on terra firma. 

In 1875, when the Philadelphia Exhibition was in course 'of 
construction; it was mooted in' the press that a Tower of 1,000 
feet in height would be built in the middle of the park which 
surrounded the palace. 

The project, however, was not carried out, and now to France 
belongs the honour of having put the idea into execution. 

Experience gained from the erection of all high monuments 
hitherto constructed, has 'shown the great difficulty which exists 
in exceeding a height of 500 feet when the mnterial used in the 
building is chiefly stone. ' •' 

The following are the heights of the principal known monu- 
ments : — 

The Tower of Washington ... about 555 feet' 

Cologne' Cathedral ... ... ... ,, 521 „ 

Eouen Cathedral ... ... ... „ 491 „ 

The Great Pyi-amid of Egypt ... „ 478 „ 

Strasburg Cathedral ... ... ,, 465 „ 

Vienna Cathedral ... ... ... „ 452 „ , 

Cathedral of St. Peter, at Eome... ,, 435 „ 

St. Paul's, London ,, 404 „' 

Spire of the Invalides, Paris ... ,, 344 „ 

Pantheon, Paris L. ... ... ,, 259 „ 

Balustradeof the Tower of Notre Dame, Paris 216 „• , 

Such heights as the foregoing cannot bo exceeded without 
having recourse to the' employment of iron, which is eminently 
suited for withstanding the oscillation resulting from the foi^ce of 
the wind, and which oscillation is very considerable at great 
heights. ■ ■- 

Metallic buildings of later construction hh,ve'beon easily biiilt 
to a lieight of about 200 feet, and no serious -difficulty has beeil 
felt where good engineeriiig skill has been employed iii reaching!; 


liciglits up to about 350 feet ; but to obtain an elevation of nearly 
1,000 feet, as has been done in the present instance, was » 
question requiring tbe deepest study and most careful considera- 
tion, tbe first being to decide definitely upon the material to be- 
sed for tbe construction of tbe Tower. 

In a paper read by M. Eiffel to tbe Paris Institute of Civil , 
Engineers, he states at some length bis reasons for having chosen ■ 
iron in preference to any other material for the building of the < 
Tower. We can, therefore, scarcely do better than give a trans- 
lated extract from the aforementioned pajjcr, which reads : — 

" That this material should be either iron or steel is decided—^ 
firstly, by reason of the great resistance of the metal and its light 
weight ; secondly, by the email surface that it offers to the wind ; 
and finally, "by its elaclisity, which solidifies all the various pieces 
and makes a structure, every part of which will bear eithei- 
expansion or compression, combined with complete security. 

"With regard to the preference that we have, for our pui-posc. 
given to iron over steel, we long hesitated, but as in our case 
ttiere is no occasion that the etructnre should be particularly light, 
which, as far as the resistance to the wind goes, would be more 
objectionable than preferable, and seeing that steel would more 
readily yield to the force of the wind, and there would con- 
sequently be greater oscillation and vibration, we have chosen 

"The employment of metal for the construction further offers 
the exceptional advantage, that the Tower is easily removable, and 
if for any reason it \\ere considered advisable to transfer it to any 
point away from the exhibition, this could be effected at the not 
very excessive cost, considering the extent of the undertaking, 
of 000,000 to 700,000 francs. 

"We have, beyond considering metal, taken into account the 
advantage we should derive from using masonry, and have studied 
two points — one that masonry should be used in combination 
with the iron, and the other that masonry should be exclusively 
used. We will at once say that both these solutions have 
appeared to us, on examination, inferior beyond all comparison 
to the employment of metal and metal only. 

" In endeavouring to combine the use of iron with that of 
masonry, one encounters all the opposite influences which would, 
be recognized in a mixed solution, in which altogether dissimilar 
elements entered. Therefore, without further remark on this 
point, we may add that we foresaw euch difficulties in the 


employment of the aforesaid combination as appeared to us 

" We further came to the conclusion that it would be im- 
practicable to use masonry alone, apart from the fact that the 
cost would be far greater. 

" The following brief elucidations on this subject may bo of 
interest : — 

" The first point to be considered is what co-efficient of resist- 
ance per square centimetre or square inch to adopt. 

" Beyond this another vital consideration has to be taken into 
account without which one would be entirely misled. We refer 
to the possible height of a Tower being only calculated on the 
resistance of the stone employed in its construction as if it were 
a monolith and one supposed that with porphyry or granite a 
higher Tower could be built than with good limestone. 

'■ In fact, if one would not wish to make merely mathematical 
conceptions, and would remain in the region of facts, which one 
must do when studying the building of a great structure, tlie 
materials of which will be subject to a very considerable 
strain, it must not be forgotten that the building if of stone, 
could not be ofiected by simply placing the parts one on top of 
the other on surfaces more or less well prepared to receive them, 
as they would be inevitably separated by beds of mortar. 

" The stability of the work would therefore depend on the 
mortar not cracking, and it must be, consequently, fully under- 
stood that it is the crushing point of the mortar much more than 
that of the stone, which must be considered, for stone by itself 
•would appear to show building possibilities altogether deceiving, 
and raise practical possibilities to the most fanciful heights. 

" The essential condition is that the material employed should 
l)e more resistant than the mortar. 

" Classical buildings show that the cement mortar used in their 
oonstruction a maximum resistance of 150 to 200 kilogrammes per 
.square centimetre.* In adopting, as a practical limit the 1-lOth 
of this resistance, as is generally done, masonry or free-stone 
■should not be used to support a load of more than 15 to 
20 kilogrammess per square centimetre. Under altogether ex- 
ceptional circumstances, and going beyond the ordinary limit of 

* For all practical purposes it will suffice to bear in mind that 
■2^ centimetres are equal to 1 inch English, and a kilogramme 
4wo pounds English weight. 

LOAD pen ■■ 



14-7(3 kgr. 



19 36 









security, entering indeed to a degree the dangerous zone, a* 
mucli as 25 kilogrammes is permitted. 

" Sometimes imdeed 30 kilogrammes is given as a limit, but 
this is altogether excessive. The following are the buildings in. 
which we believe the strain or load is the greatest : — 

Pillars of the Dome des Invalides, Paris 

Pillars of St. Peter's, Eome 

Pillars of St. Paul's, London ... 

Column of St. Paul's, Hors-les-Murs Church 

Pillars of the Tower of Si. Merri, Paris 
Pillars of the Dome of the Pantheon, Paris ... 

"For the Church de la Toussaint, at Algiers, 45 kilogrammes^ 
might be added, but this example is, perhaps, scarcely admissable^^ 
as the Church is in ruins. From this table will be seen the- 
limit to which builders have gone, and judging from these 
examples the average is, as mentioned by us, from 16 to 20 kilo- 
grammes per square centimetre, rising in two of the instances 
quoted to 30 kilogrammes. 

We will now put bsfore the reader a pew of the chiep- 


The principal difficulty which presents itself is the following: — 
According to the general method of building viaducts, sti-ong 
trellis work, which is calculated to resist the action of the wind,, 
is made use of, but the base of the piles being, of course, in- 
creased in proportion to the height of same, the trellis bars bj"" 
reason of their great length are somewhat illusory in theu- 

They may be given the form of caissons, so as to serve equally 
as well for traction or thrusts, as for compression, neverth less, 
they still present a great difficulty if the distancs apart exceeds SO' 
to 100 feet. There is ^-eat advantage, therefore, to be g-.ined 
by dispensing withthe trellis bars, the weight of which becomes- 
comparatively very great, and to give to the pile a form which 
would ooncentraj^pi^l its resisting strength in its hips, and reduce it 
to four great uprights, united simply by some horizontal belts very 
far apartit^Were it merely a question of a pile to support a metallio 
pla,tform, account having only to bo taken, of the efifect of.tha 
wind on the platform itself, which is always very considerable 
compared with that exercised on the pile, the wind-withstanding 


bars of the vertical surfaces could be dispensed with, by passing 
the axis at a special point situated at the summit of the pile. 
It is evident in this case that the horizontal force of the wind 
would be directly dispersed, following the axis of these rafters 
or stays which thus would never be subject to any great force. 
When, however, the building of a big pile has to be considered, 
such as with the Eiffel Tower, in which at the summit there is 
no horizontal reaction of the wind on the platform, but simply 
the action of the wind on the pile itself, things have to be- 
differently arranged, and to do away with trellis bars it is suffi- 
cient to so curb the uprights that the tangents of the uprights, 
brought within the points situated at the same height, always 
meet at the point of passage of the resultant of the action that 
the wind exercises on that part of the pile which is below th& 
points referred to. 

In fact, where account has to be taken, both of the action of 
the wind on the upper platform of the viaduct, and of that 
exercised on the pile itself, the exterior curve of the pile clearly 
approaches the straight line. 

Eeferrins; asain to the relative values of iron and stone for tho- 
construction of such an edifice as the Eiffel Tower, we may, in- 
drawing a simile, give a brief account of what was, before the- 
erectionof the Great Paris Tower, thehighest building in the world. 

We refer to the great stone obelisk known as the Washington 
Monument, which is at the present time the highest structure irt 
the world. 

This work, built entirely of granite with a coating of marble- 
is 554 feet high. It is square from top to bottom ; its base, at 
the level of the foundations is 55 feet square ; at the bottom of the 
j)yramid which crowns it, it is 34 feet square. The pyramid itself 
is 55^ feet high. This obelisk has a square, hollow inside, so 
that the thickness of the walls is 19^ inches at the top, and 14 
feet 9 inches at the base. Its external slope is 10 feet 4 inches 
on a height of 499 feet, or -0206 feet per foot. The internal 
aperture contains a steam lift which was used to raise the 
materials, and now serves to hoist visitors. 

The weight of the structure is 45,500 tons, which, spread over 
a base of 2,392 square feet, gives a pressure of 280 pounds per 
square inch. 

If one takes into accoimt the effect of a wind of 60 pounds per 
square foot, the stress due to this wind is 92 pounds per square 
inch, which gives a total stress of 372 pounds per square inch. 

Such is the limit that, even with the finest materials, and 
particularly careful workmanship, the American engineers, who 
in no way lack boldness, have not been able to exceed 
and for very good reasons. We may add by way of 
parenthesis, while on the subject, that the example of this 
monument gave no encouragement to build a tower of stone. 
In fact the erection of this memorial was first projected in 1848, 
when it was decided that it should take the form of a pyramid 
COO feet in height, to be encircled by a Pantheon with collonade, 
forming a peristyle, but when in 1854, the pyramid having 
reached a height of 150 feet, was found to bear on one side to an 
alarming extent, the work was suspended. The next resumption 
of it took place in 1877, when it was decided to reduce by 100 
feet the projected height, which was then fixed at 525 feet, and 
the entire foundation was underpinned The base was con- 
siderably enlarged and surrounded with Beton massives, 
increasing the surface of the foundations from 196G square feet 
to 4916 square feet. It was not until 1880, when after overcom- 
ing great difficulties, the building of the upper part of the 
structure was continued. The work then went on very regularly 
at the rate of 100 feet per year, and the inauguration ceremony 
took place on February the 21st, 1888. The money already 
expended on the building amounts to £280,000 As regards the 
Pantheon, which ie to decorate the edifice, an indefinite adjourn- 
ment has taken place by reason of the considerable expense that 
the building of it would entail, and in referring to the cost of 
tliis monument, it should be borne in mind the edifice is as plain 
as it could very well be, being in fact a sort of big chimney shaft 
little more than half as high as the Eiffel Tower. 

What would then a tower of 985'feet in height cost? We 
liave endeavoured to make the calculation and allowed for an 
equally substantial building and have arrived at a cube of n.o less 
than 7G,000 yards, exclusive of the foundations. If the cubic 
yard be calculated at no more than £7 10s. a total expenditure 
of £570,000 would be required. 

With regard to the foundation, its upper diameter would be 
about 100 feet, its lower diameter 230 feet, and its height about 
fi5 feet, which gives a cubic measurement of 41,200 yards, which 
at £2 the cubic yard sliows a cost of £82,400, or about £652.400 
in all. If to this were added a pantheon and special decorations 
this total would be still further augmented to so great a de<>Tce 
that we will not attempt to fix an approximate price. 


To resume, the difiSculty attending tbe foundations and the 
dangerous consequences that might result from them, either by 
unequal sinking in the soil (which depression in the case of an 
iron tower would be of comparatively little consequence), o^ 
of unequal compression of the mortar and the possibility of its 
t;iking an insufficient hold of the immense massives, and further, 
the diificulty and slowness of building necessitated in the placing 
together of such an enormous cube of masomy, added to the 
euormous cost of the enterprise. All these considerations can 
only lead to the conviction that a tower built of masonry, bo diifi- 
cult to project even theoretically, would present in practice many 
dangers and drawbacks, the least of which is the enormous 
expense that is so disproportionate to \he end to be attained. 

M Eiffel and his colleagues having therefore definitely decided 
for the many reasons enumerated in the foregoing report, that 
the tower should be built of iron, a site had to be found iu the 
exhil)ition grounds which was suitable alike for convenience of 
situation, and at the same time geologically fit to receive the 

That the reader may better follow us in the detailed description 
we shall give both of the foundations of the monument and of the 
structure itself, we have thought it desirable to commence by 


The framework is essentially composed of four piles, which 
form, so to say, the hips of a pyramid with curved sides. 

Each pile is built in a square section, which gradually dimi- 
nfshes in size from base to summit, and forms a curved trellis 
worked caisson 49 feet square at the base and 16 feet at the 

The distance apart of the feet of the piles is about 325 ft. from 
axis to axis. These piles repose on solid massive foundations, to 
which, so as to increase the stability, they are anchored. On the 
first floor or stage of the tower, that is to say, at about 230 feet 
above the ground, the piles are united by a gallery 49 feet wide, 
which runs round the edifice. This gallerj' has a surface 45,300 
square feet, including balconies. On the second floor is a 
chamber about 400 feet square. 

On the summit is a cupola with outside balcony of 2,G80 square 
feet, from which may be viewed a magnificent panorama of 75 
mUes in extent. 

In the lower part of the tower at each side is a grand archway 

having an opening. of 262 feet,' and being 1(54 feet in height. The 
richness of ornamentation -and- diversity of colouring -on these 
arches make them the- principal decorative elements of the tower. 
Tlie uprights contain in their interior the lifts- for carrj'ing the 
visitors up the tower.- 


From the various borings made in, the Champs de Mars, it was 
found that th-e lower stratum of the subsoil is ■ formed by a stiff 
jDlastic clay bed about 52 feet thick, which- rej)Oses on chalk. 
The clay: is dry, sufficiently compact, and able to bear a -^veight 
•of about 251bs. to the square inch. The cJlay bed is slightly on 
the incline from the Military School to the Seine, and is sur- 
mounted by a compact bank of sand and gravel eminently suited 
for bearing foundations. 

As far as the environs of the balustrade, which sepatates the 
•Champs de Mars proper, belonging to the state, from the square 
Ibelonging to the town, that is to say nearly to the height of the 
Eue de Crenelle, this bed of sand and gravel has an almost 
Riniform depth of from 20 to 23 feet. Beyond this seems to lie 
the former bed of the Seine, and the action of the water has 
reduced the thickness of the sand and gravel bed. which gradually 
diminishes to almost nothing, when the present bed of the river is 
reached. This solid bed of sand and gravel is surmounted with 
a layer of fine sand of variable depth,- as also with muddy sand 
and the like, unsuitable for receiving foundations. Certain 
administrative considerations forbidding the placing of the Tower 
an that par(i of the Champs de Mars which belongs to the State, 
a,nd were the placing of the foundations would have presented 
no difficulty, the next site that appeared desirable was the quay 
■of the Seine, so that the Tower might be as far as possible from 
the Exhibition buildings. The subsoil, however, in this locality 
proved to be utterly unsuitable, for so heavy a building could not 
be built directly on a clay bed, and finally, at the instance of M. 
Eiffel, the site was chosen at the extreme limit of the square, 
where the building is now- situated. The foundations of each of 
the feet are thus separated ftoni the clay by a layer of gravel of 
eufificient thickness. On January 28th, 18S7, the excavations for 
the foundations were commenced. 

■ Mode of Found.\.tion. ' The two'.rear pilos,-or uprightsofthe 
Tower, are Situated on the borders of the old balustrade, ' where 
there was a layer of debris 23 feet deep, at Tjvhich point the 

'normal level of tbe Seine is reached. iBelowithe debris lies a bed 
•of sand and gravel,, the depth of which is ihere about 20 feeft. 
'Thus a perfect foundation was veiy easily obtained for these 
itwo piles, and ji layer of Beton cement,. 6^ feet thick, constitu^ite 
the bottom of same. The two front piles bave been diflferently 
founded, the sand and gravel bed he^e is only reached atl6" 4'' 
below the level of the Seine, and to arrive at it, marly and sliraj' 
earth, the result of the alluvial deposits of the Seine, has to 
be traversed. 

As far down as the clay, nothing could be found below- the 
■sand and gi-avel bed but pure sand, ferruginous sand-stone, and 
:a bank of limestone, which had formed ■ itself at the bottom 6f 
the depression made hj the water' in the bed of plastic clay. 
There is thus an incomprossible bed, which is nearly 10 feet deep 
.at pile No. i (Grenelle side), and nearly 19 feet at pile ' No. 1 
'(Paris side). Thus all security is assured, particularly as the 
foundations are adjusted in such a manner that the maximum 
pressure on the foundation soil; even when taking into accouiit 
'the effect of the wind, does not exceed 571bs. per square inch. 

Conifiressed air was the power employed in making the 
^foundations of these two piles, -i-sheet iron caissons 49 feet long 
>by 10 feet wide, being used foreacli pile and sunk to a depth of 
16 ' 4" below water level. 


Each of the four piles which form the feet of the Tower, is 
^built in a section of 15 metres square, the pressure on the 
foundations being regulatiid and transmitted through massives or 
iblocks of masonry, on which repose the four uprights constituting 
a pile. The upper part of these massives, receiving tlie iron 
ishoes of the uprights, is normal to the inclination of the pile; 
and is of a somewhat pyraniidial shape, which latter has been so 
arranged as to carry to a point closely neighbouring the centre of 
the foundation, the oblique result of pressures. 

This oblique reaction of pressures when it enters the masonry 
lias a force of 565 tons without wind, and 875 tons with the wind. 
On the foundation soil of the two piles neighbouring the Seine, 
i.e., at a depth of 46 feet, the vertical pressure on the soil; is 
h3,320 Ions with the wind, and is spread over a surface of 90 
-s<iuare metres giving a load 1531bs. per sqiiare inch. On the two 
jiiles abutting the Champs de Mars, the pressure on the' 
gt-ouhd to a depth of 29 feet is 1,970 tons, which is spread over' 
:a surface of GO square metres, giving a load of about 471bs. to the 

square inch. Thia surface has a covering of Beton cement. All the- 
massives are fixed according to the horizontal projection of the' 
uprights, that is to say at 45° in relation to the axis of the Champs- 
de Mars. The Beton cement is composed of Boulogne cement 
and sand, the latter in quantity of about 5 cwt. per cubic yard. 

In the centre of each of the massivef, ■which are of Souppe *^ 
stone, are sunk two large anchorage bolts, 25 feet 9 inches long>- 
and 4 inche.'^ in diameter, which by the aid of cast iron shoes and 
irons, run over the greater part of tho masonry of the pyramids. 
This anchorage, although not necessary for the stability of the- 
Tower, which is assured by its own weight, lends, of course, 
additional security to it. These blocks of masonry are covered 
by two layers of freestone brought from Chateau Landon, which 
is capable of resisting a breaking or crushing strain of throe tons 
on the square inch, whereas the actual priessure it has to bear is- 
but little more than 3 J cwt. on the square inch. The stone there- 
fore is only required to bear one fortieth of its resisting strain. 

From the figures and particulars given it wUl thus be seen that 
these foundations have been made under the most secure conditions, 
and that be it in choice of materials, or in dimensions, they have- 
been liberally allowed for, so as not to leave any doubt as to their 
stability. Notwithstanding, so as to be quite sure that the feet 
of the Tower can be kept, under every condition, on a perfectly 
horizontal plain, a cavity has been left in each of the shoes 
holding the uprights, in which cavity an 800 ton hydraulic press 
may be placed. By the aid of this press the displacement can bo 
effected of anjr one of the uprights, which may be rtiised as 
required, and steel ^vedges inserted between the upper part of the- 
shoe and the lower part of a counter shoe of wrought steel on 
which the iron upright rests. These presses can be worked, if 
necessary, at any moment in the manner of a regulating screw, so. 
as to effect the exact levelling of all poin*^s of support. 

Around each pile, that is to say, surrounding the four massives. 
which carry a like number of uprights and constitute a foot of 
the tower, runs a wall built nearly on a level with the founda- 
tions, which it encloses. For this object it is built and not for the 
purpose of sustaining any weight. These waDs are built ooc 
pillars having arcades, the frontages of which are either perpendi- 
cular or parallel to the Champ de Mars. The enclosure thus, 
foi-med is 350 feet square and is filled in with djbris, except in 
the case of pile No. 3, under which a cellar is formed wherein 
the engines and generatore for the lifts are stored. 


Seeing that the greatest inclination of each pile from its hovi- 
Eontal at the base of the tower is 54°, the extent to which it 
overhangs or is out of its perpendicular is consequently 98 feet 
for that part of each pile between the ground and the first floor. 
The difficulty of erection results from this overweighing, since it 
is necessary to maintain a stable equilibrium in the enormous 
inclined masses which constitute each foot. 

Our readers will remember that each pile is composed of four 
uprights, or hips, spacedin a 15 metres square, and bound together 
by crossbars and trellis work, thus constituting a prismatic 
aiTangement with quadrangular base. 

Each comer upright is strengthened in its socket of masonry 
by the aid of a cast iron and steel support arranged in the follow- 
ing manner. Firstly, a piece of cast iron weighing about five 
tons reposes on the inclined seat of the foundation. This casting- 
is hollow, and is bored in the side to admit of the introduction of 
an 800 ton hydraulic press. On the upper part of the casting 
rests a steel circular covering of smaller circumferance weighing 
about two and a half tons, which partly penetrates the hollow of 
the under casting, at the same time supjiorting the lower end of 
of the first shaft or pillar of the corner upright. The proper 
tlistribution of the weight of the upright on the masonry is 
assured by the interposition of the supports referred to. By the 
arrangement of the steel cap penetrating the cast iron support 
it is possible to slide the said piece of steel, which being in a 
sense the axis of the upright allows the definite position of each 
upright to be mathematically regulated, the upright being too, in 
a certain degree independent of the support of the foundation. 

It is here that the 800 ton presses, to which we have referred, 
are brought into use. In the chamber reserved in the 
support Ls installed the great press cylinder the base of which 
rests on the iron casting, while its head works under the steel 
circular covering. When the press is put in operation it will 
lift up the steel covering and consequently raise the pillar or shaft 
of the upright that it supports. It is needless to say that the 
means of regulation, guiding, and precision are minutely calcu- 
lated and by careful working a variation in the weight of the 
uprights can be effected to an extent that would be more than 
«ufiicient addition to the theoretical security drawn from the 
I'esult of calculation, and here is a practical guarantee ag-ainst 
any displacement in the presence of the iron holdfasts of the 
tower, which are anchored beneath each foundation, traversing 


the base of the lower iron casting being fixed by powerful irorn 
braces to the foot of each upright. 

We have already referred to the great slope given to the piles, 
which naturally gives them a tendency to overturn. Such ten- 
dency, however, could only obtain when the pile had reached' 
such a height that the projection from the centre of gravity fell 
outside the square of supports which form the base of the entire 
pile. Calculation showed this height in the Eiffel Tower to be- 
about 80 feet, so that up to that point the erection of the inclined 
piles were effected, as far as stability goes, in a like manner to ■ 
that of a vertical pile. 

The piles, however, having been built to the said height of 85 • 
feet, it was necessary to find some temporary support for them- 
until they had reached that elevation (180 feet) where the hori- 
zontal posts or rafters could be fixed, and thus join together the- 
four piles, forming the framework of the first floor of the tower. 

The method adopted in this instance was to erect woodeni 
pylons, or scaffolds, of pyramidial shape, 100 feet in height, 
j)laeing them in such a position as to support at their summit the- 
uprights forming the piles. Twehe of the said scaffoldings had 
to be erected to support the various uprights of the tower, re- 
quiring nearly 2,.300 cubic feet of wood. Tliis support obtained-, 
the building out of the perpendicular was continued to the first 
floor of the tower, when the first row of horizontal jjosts, or 
rafters, were fixed, thus joining the piles together. 

Tliese posts are 25 feet long, and weigh 68 tons each. The 
great height at which they had to be fixed necessitated the- 
erection of further scaffolding to a height of 147 feet, finishing at 
the top with a platform 82 feet in length. Four similar scaffolds 
had to bo erected for each frontage of the tower, but these- 
together with the smaller ones were only required until the posts 
had been joined to the piles. 

Tlie first stage of the tower having been luached in the earlj^ 
part of January, 1888, the work was continued in the manner 
indicated, and in July of the same year, the second floor was- 
arrived at, and this at an elevation of 377 feet from the ground.. 
Here the four piles were joined together bj^ means of the hori- 
zontal posts, as in the case of the first floor. At the same time 
the decorative arches at each of the four frontages of the tower - 
were built, and the consoles were also put up which support the 
galleries that run round the first floor. 

For the actual erection and elevation of the parts forming the- 


jjiles, nine pivot cranes, specially designed for this purpose were- 
used. The following is a brief descripiion of them : — 

Each pile of the tower, as our readers are aware, is fitted with 
a j)assenger lift, for which pui-pose two parallel posts to support 
the rolling-way or course of the cage were fixed in the foot of each 
pile. M. Eiffel happily conceived the idea of making use of these 
rolling ways for the support of a horizontal platform to receive a 
crane, and furnish at the same time other points of attachment 
for the pivot crane to work on. 

The cranes thus emploj^ed had a 39 feet radius, which was 
sufficient to serve each of the four uprights of the pile. The 
lifting and placing of the load was effected by the combined 
movements of rotation of the crane, and elevation of the platform 
on which the crane stood, by means of a winch worked by the 
crane. When the crane had thus set a floor of girders, it was 
hoisted, while it still had hold of its load, and until it was brought 
to the required height for placing the girders of another floor- 
This elevation of the crane was made gradually at distances of 
about 9 feet at a time, being aided by the application of a large 
screw. The crane can lift weights of four tons, and the radius could 
Lc varied 'by adjusting the jib. It was therefore capable of 
serving all parts coming within its reach. 

These cranes which were furnished with every requisite safety 
appliance, were powerful but easily managed machines, by the aid 
of which the work of erection was carried on at a great rapiditj". 
The weight of the crane, one of each of which was supplied to 
each pile, was 12 tons. The pivot on which the crane worked 
was made to glide round a horizontal axis, so as, by means of a 
regulating screw to keep the crane in a vertical position. Not- 
withstanding the difficulty of the circumstances under which the 
crane had to work ; it was so adapted as to be as readily and 
easily manipulated as if working on the ground. 

The shape of this tower has not, as is commonlj- thought, been 
designed merely in view of architectural beauty, but it has more 
pai'ticularly been formed on mathematical considerations, which 
were regulated by calculations as to the power of the wind. The 
tower is so formed that no matter what ariel ciirrents are brought 
iuto contact with it, from a gentle breeze to a hurricane that beats 
with a force of iSOO lbs. on the square foot, the result of the force 
which strikes each part passes by the centre of gravity of each of 
the sections. 

The form of the tower is in a manner of cpeaking moulded by 


iihe wind itself. One can scarceiy imagine tLe tremendous labour 
that the drawing of the plans entailed. The plan of the 
«difice was divided into 27 squares or panels, each of which 
necessitated a separate diagram. 

Again, each of these diagrams gave rise to a series of geomet - 
rical drawings, calculated by the aid of logarithm tables. 

It is not possible for us to enter into the technical details 
•of this immense work. We will content ourselves with noti- 
fying that the different metallic parts which have entered into 
-the construction of the Tower number no less than 12.000, and 
<!ach required a special drawing in which even the minutest 
details had been mathematically determined, notably, the size 
«iid position of the rivet holes The diagrams of the Eiffel 
Tower comprise .'iOO engineer's drawings, and 2.o00 plans from 
the drawing office Each sheet is 39 inches by 32 inches. 
These dramngs neces sitated the employment of 40 draughtsmen 
.and calculators who were engaged on the work over an uninter- 
rupted period of two years. This staff was employed on the 
wor ksof M. ELfifel's firm, at Lcvallois-l'erret. 

The number oE holes in the various pieces is no less than 
7,000,000, and were perforatt'd by means of a tool specially 
<lesigned for the purpese. To give an idea of the amomit 
■of metal that had to be pierced, we may observe that the 
holes placed end to end would form a. tube nearly 44 railos in 
length. The rivets employed in the building number 2,500,000. 

Each part which entered into the construction of the Tower 
•was thus traced out, and pierced at the works situated at 
Levallois-Perret and on arriving at the Champs de Mars had only 
to be put into position and rivitted on to the building, 

Eeturning to the subject o£ the hydraulic press or screw, 
the following is a desoi-iptio;i of this very oirious and in- 
genious mechanical contrivance for raising the uprights forming 
the feet of the Tower. 

Before describing it we would revert to the fact that 
the Tower reposes on the ground by means of four piles or 
feet built in a square section. Each of these is formed by 
four uprights, which constitutes the hips of these feet, and which 
are joined together by trellis-work and cross-bars These 
•uprights are really stout caissons, the full and thick sheet iron 
ssides of which are stiffened by angle iron, It is through the 
medium of these uprights that the weight of the building is 
distributed over the foundations. As there are altogether 16 


upi-iglits — AJz ., four fdr c:ac]i foot, aad the Tower weiglis about 
7,500 tons, it follows that each upright will have to support 
nearly 600 tons. The equal distribution of this weight had to be 
most carefully arranged, as if any upright had considerably 
greater weight on it than the rest it would be attended with , 
danger. In order to effect this equal distribution, it is essential 
that the uprights should he fixed to a nicety, and should sO' 
bear on their foundations. 

To make use of a familiar comparison, we would say that the 
Tower should be like a tabic with four legs, each of which should 
be so placed as to bear its equal share of the weight. Thus the 
Tower has been constructed in a manner to permit of a perfect 
regulation of the uprights, forming, as they do, the foundation. 
The foot of each upright, it will be remembered, ends in a steel 
shaft of circular shape, which penetrates into the interior of an 
iron casting, being supported by the framework of the socket. 
It is between the rim of the steel hat which forms the foot of 
the upright, and the cast iron socket, that iron blocks wero 
inserted, so as to regulate the exact position of the upright. 
To effect this operation, in the interior of the socket, by the square 
opening reserved in one of its sides, a screw crane, or hydraulic 
press, of great power is introduced, the piston of which works in a 
cylinder, both of which are wrought steel, The water enters into 
the bottom of the cylinder by means of a pipe ; this water is 
compressed by a forcing-pump worked by means of a lever. 

The normal weight of one of these screw-cranes is capab le of 
lifting 800 tons. Each screw crane is tested before being sent 
out of the workshops of the makers, M M. Vollot, Badois & Co., 
to a pressure of 900 tons. 

It will also be remembered that the lifting of the different pieces 
from the ground up to tlic first floor, was effected by means of 
four proof cranes. The same method was adopted in lifting the 
pillars, girders, &c., up to the second floor. As it would have 
taken too long, however, to have lifted the material direct from 
the ground to the place where it had to be fixed, the idea was 
conceived of making a relay on the floor of the first stage, and 
for this purpose a crane worked by a six horse-power engine was 
there installed. The material taken from off the ground by means- 
of this crane was raised to the height of the floor, and depositees 
on wagons, which by a circular route, conveniently arranged 
served the four piles. The metal was thus taken to the exact 
spot where it had to be lifted by the cranes fixed in the piles. 


Wlicn the juucfcion of the four piles was boing made by means 
•of tlie borizontal posts situated below the second floor, a slight 
•discrepancy -was discovered in the distance apart from the pillasr 
This discrepancy lay in the fact that the two piles situated on 
the Grencllc side "were rather higher than the two on the Paris 
;side by about five or six millimetres. ■ This slight mistake was 
however, rectified by lowering, and at the same time widening, 
the distance • by some millimetres between the two pillars . on 
the Grrenelle side This operation was effected by means of tlie 
hydi-aulic screw cranes, which we have described. 




Arriving now at the resisting strength of the Tower, let us 
^suppose for instance, that we had simply trellified the frontages, 
thereby forming a wall to resist die cutting or sweeping force of 
the wind of which the horizontal components are 
P', P", P"', P"", 

It is known that to calculate the force working within the 3 parts 
•divided by a plane M N. it is sufficient to determine the resultant 
P. from all the exterior forces acting above the section.and to 
■ dissect this resultant into 3 forces passing by the divided parts. 



If the form of the system is such, that for each horizontal stroke- 
M. N. the two extended rafters or stays meet the outer force P. 
the power in 'the trellis bar would be null and it might be takeW 
away. It is the application of this principal which constitutes one 
of the specialities of our system, and which we believe will b(^ 
interesting to Engineers. Thus we arrive at the fact that tlif- 
direction of each of the parts that form the uprights, is inflected 
according to the curve traced on the diagram, and in fact thc- 
curve of the Tower itself is but a reproduction on a diifereut 
scale of bond of the curve caused at such moments a.';- 
it may be agitated by the wind. The uncertainty existing both 
as regards the eflfects of the wind and the lines to adopt, ecjually 
as far as its intensity is concerned and the value of surfaces struck 
has lead us to adopt very special precautions. As regards thc- 
intensity we have 2 hypothesis— the one which supposes that the- 
\vind has over the whole height of the Tower a constant force of 
300 kilogrammes per square metre : the other that this inteusity 
starts at the base with 200 kilogrammes and goes on increasing 
to the summit where it attains a force of 400 kilogi-ammes 
per square metre. 

With regard to surfaces struck, we have not hesitated, not- 
withstanding its apparent exaggeration to admit the hypothesis, 
that on the uj)per half of the Tower,all the trellis bars of the caisson 
were replaced by full sides or walls, that on the intermediate part 
where the hollows are larger, each anterior face was counted at 
•4 times the actual surface of the iron. Below this (gallery on first 
floor and upper portions of arches) we count the anterior surface- 
as full, finally at the base of the Tower we count the uprights as- 
full surface and struck twice by the wind. These hy^Kithesis are 
more unfavourable than those generally adopted for Viaducts. 

"With these surfaces wo have made the calculations on botli 
hypothesis of repetition of the intensity of the wind and by the 
diagi-am it will be seen that the 2 funiculas polygons at which we 
have arrived are nearly idfentical. Taking the hypothesis of a 
uniform wind of 300 kilogTammes over the whole building, the- 
total horizontal force on the buildingwould be 3,284 tons and IIk- 
centre of action is situated at 92m. 30 above the support or buttress. 
The overturning point is consequently 

M =3284 X 92m. 30=303,113 tons metres. 


As to the point of stability, the following is the total weight 
of the^building : — 

Metal 4,S00tons. 

Eough Planking say l,t>uO „ 

Various ... ... ..- ••• ;i 50 ,, 

'IV. al ... 6,500 tons. 

The base of the Tower being 100 metres tlie point of 
.■stability will be 


Ms=6,o00tx =325,000"tons metres, 


which exceeds the overturning point. 

In the secoiTl hypothesis, that of a wind varying from 200 to 
■400 kilogrammes, the total horizontal force is not more than 
iJ,874 tons, but the centre of action rises to 107 metres above the 
■buttress, the moment of overturning is consequently 

Mr.-2,S74N 107 :--S07,;j13 

This figure is nearly identical to that of the fi.rst hypothesis 

tind remains below the point of stability. 
But we can also augment notably the point of security in making 

tfast each of the 4 ends of the uprights to the massive foundation 

•of the sub-basement by means of ."i holdfiistsof Om ]l diameter 

•^vhlch will intersect a cube of masonry, sufficient to double the co- 
efficient of security. As regards the foundations it will be 

■sufficient to give some figures to show that they are very easily 

■constructed which is as follows : — 

Each of the cornerribs is supported on a square massive masonry 

-foundation ordinarily of 6 metres in height and 8 metres square 
which reposes on a Beton base 4 metres in thickness and 9 metres 
square. These massives which are crossed by anchoring or lashers 
8 metres in length, aieboimd to oneanother by a wall 1 metre 
in thickness and between them is a large glazed chamber, about 
250 squar metres which will bo used as the acces to the lifts and 
the installation of the engines. Under these conditions 
the foundation soil would be weighted as follows, where the 

•^ir.d had a force of 300 kilogrammes per square metre. 

lat. Weight of Metallic Ui.rif,4it 
Weight of Upright itself ... 6,500 


1,G2J tons 

Effect of Wind 307,518 j. 3,162 tons. 

2x100= 1,537 „ j 
2nd. Weight of Masonry 5,400 „ 

Total ... ~~85G,2 tons. 
Which divided over a surface of 324 square metres, allow per 
square centimetre 


:--:2k, 6 on an a-\-erage. 


and 4k50 on the hip most affected. 

Finally with regard to the maximum bearing strain of the iron 
we would observe that it should allow for a wind having a force of 
SOO, kilogrammes per square metre which is so exceptional as not 
hitherto to have occured at Paris, and we will fix this co-efficient 
strain at 10 kilogrammes wliich for all ordinary winds at Paris, 
will correspond to an effectivj strain of 6 to 7 kilogrammes. 

This co-efticient of 10 kilogrammes is usual in Germany and 
Austria for great metallic structures which are not subject as in 
bridges to the vibration caused by trains, we have ourselves applied 
it in a general manner to the station at Buda Pesth, and the 
Eailway Companies of France also apply it to great structures. 

The co-efficient total share in our tower belonging to the 
actual load is 5 kilogrammes, also 5 kilogrammes for the force 
of the wind of 300 kilogrammes w^hioh result is reduced to one 
or two kilogrammes for winds of ordinary violence at Paris. 

I should also refer to the extent to which a tower of this 
kind would bend under the influence of the wind. This question 
is of interest, not only as regards the actual bend which a wind 
of 300 to 400 kilogiammcs might cause (about which no alarm 
need be felt, seeing that the summit of the tower would not then 
be accessible) but is also desirable to be taken into account so 
that it mighi be seen whether winds of ordinarj' violence would 
incommode any people who might be on the upper platform. 

If we tal^ the classification of winds referred to in the work 
of Claudel, and calculate the bends which correspond to the 
indicated pressures, we shall find these bends to be tho 
following : — 











Very strong breeze 




Breeze vvbicli necessitates 

taking in of high, sails 




Yery strong wind 




Boisterous wind 


64 16 






These figures are entirely' reassuring, and as the oscillations 
"would bo extremely slow by reason of the great length of the 
part which was bending, it is clear that the effect -would not be 
apparent, and would further be much less than in lighthouses of 
masonry, where the elasticity of the mortar is the most impor- 
tant factor in the oscillations that have been observed 


Returning to the subject of the passenger lifts with which the 
Eiffel Tower is fitted, there will be four lifts nianing from the 
groimd to the second floor. Two of these are supplied by the 
well known American firm of Otter Brothers, being constructed 
to carry 50 passengers and travel at ihe rate of 2 metres per 
second. The further two lifts running from the ground floor are 
"hy the celebrated French firm, Messrs. Eoux, Cambaluzier, and 
Lepape, and are constructed to hold 100 passengers, travelling at 
a speed of 1 metre per second. Between the second floor and 
the top of the Tower there will only be one lift, which i ons on 
the vertical. This one is constructed to carry 05 passengers, and 
will also travel at the rate of 1 metre per second thus the lifts 
together will carry to the first and second floors 2350 persons per 
hour, and to the summit 750, making a total per hour of 3000, 
or a daily total of between 25,000 to 30,000 passengers. Beyond 
this the staircases which lead from the ground to the second 
floor will permit of the ascension on foot of 2000 persons per 
hour. A more detailed description of the lifts in a later edition. 

In the aforedescribed strictly mathematical and minutely calcu- 
lated manner, has the work of building the Eiffel Tower, steadily 
progressed until at the time of writing (February 1889) it has 
ne irly reached its allotted height of 1000 feet. Little more than 
the decorative features and the placing- of the Cupola at the top of 


"the Tower, is left for the workmen to do,and in a few weeks hence 
M. Eiffel will have the infinite satisfaction of beholding this 

tstupenduous undertaking completed 

As we have already mentioned at the outset of our little pamphlet 
M. Eiffel will at any rate have proved to the world, and more 
especially to those "knowing ones" that the undertaking, however 
difficult, was not impossible, and assuredly, no one can but admire 
the indefatigable energy ,pluck, and boldness, of M. Eiffel, in thus 
bringing to so happy a conclusion the greatest engineering under- 
taking of its kind of the 19th Century. 

We understand it is in contemplation, amongst other things, to 
use this Tower for affixing to it Electric lights with which to light 
the entire Exibition Grounds,and if this is successfully carried out 
it will be the ach ievement of oneoi the uses which M. Eiffel, at the 
outset laid claim to. In a later edition of this booklet, to be issued 
for the opening of the Exhibition, we shall add a chapter giving 
a further detailed d-scription, which the present necessarily in- 
complete state of affairs renders iraiDracticable. 


One of the most frequent objections urged by the public 
against the erection of this tower is its lack of utilitJ^ We 
are, however, perfectly assured — and of this assurance we will 
presently give proof — that an actual and positive utility attaches 
to it, and in furtherance of this statement let us consider a few 
of its applications. 

To begin with, there is no doubt in view of the success 
-which attended the preceding ascensions in the captive balloon, 
Giffard, and that of the Trocadero ascenders, that the public 
would find much interest in visiting the different floors of our 
tower, as they would thus be enabled, without sustaining either 
I "the fatigue attending the climbing of mountains, or the danger 
' attached to ballooning, to view an extraordinary sight— that of a 
panorama of 61 to 70 miles in extent. The view of Paris 
by night for instance, with its brilliant lighting, would 
present a wonderful sight, such as is only known to asreonauts 
up to the present. 

It is not to be doubted, therefore, that this tower will constitute 
one of the great elements of attraction at the coming Exhibition 
as, indeed, after its close. 


"With regard to its application for meteorological purposes 
■vi'e cannot do better than give a few extracts from a commnnica- 
tion made on March 3rd to the INIeteorological Society of 
France by 


" The attention of the Meteorological Society of France has- 
been often called to the utility of a metallic tower in open 
work built to a gi'eat height, from whence, by the aid of scientific 
instruments, experiments and operations might be made at Tarious 
distances from the ground. 

Several observatories are fitted with towers of masonry, but 
for the installation thereon of metetrological instruments, more- 
disadvantages than advantages are offered. The mural surface 
presented by the masonry to the heat of the sun causes eddies in 
in the air rendering observations consequently difficult during 
rain, fog, dew, or 6now,and thus allhygrometicalandthermometri- 
cal indications become false and illusory. The project of an iron 
tower 1000 feet high therefore affords the greatest interest to 

Among the meteorological observations and experiments that 
such a tower would admit of we may mention the following. 

The law of lowering temperature according to the height could' 
be easily observed, and the variations caused by the wind, clouds, 
&c., would supply numerous particulars that up to the present 
wo are completely ignorant of. 

The quantity of rain which falls at different heights on a similar 
vertical has been very variously estimated. This deeply interesting 
question with regard to the theory of the formation of rain would 
be solved by observations of some years, carried out by means of" 
say, 15 rain guages running to the top of the Tower, and being 
Spaced at regular distances apart. Fogs.mists and dews, which so- 
often collect in large clouds at lesser heights than SOO metres from 
the gTound could be studied through all their density. The density- 
of a volume of water in its globulous state suspended in each. 
atmosphere, could be ascertained. Tlic hygrcmetrical condition 
of the air varies with the height hence nothing would be easier- 
than studying these changes, if at the same moment instruments 
could be seen that were placed one above the other and at sufficient 
distances apart. The subject evaporation would further offer scope- 
for many useful experiments ; much could be ascertained also with 


regard to atmospheric electricity. '.riie difference of electric 
tension between 2 points situated at 300 metres.vertical distance 
"is probably very great and examination would doubtless show 
phenomenon which would prove of the deepest interest. 

The speed of the wind grows generally with rapidity, when 
-sweeping up from the surface of the ground, and the Tower 
would allow of the rate of increase in the speed of the wind 
lieing ascertained to a height of 300 metres. Apart from the 
theoretical interest that the solving of this question would afford 
it would also give some useful information affecting areostation- 

The transparency of the air could be observed under except- 
ionally favorable conditions from the Tower, either from the 
■vertical, or from lines of a given inclination. Apart from the 
meteorological observations to which in the foregoing remarks I 
have exclusively confined myself,the 300 metre Tower would 
jidmit the carrying out of a great number of experiments which 
vsvithout its aid it would be impossible to attempt. It would allow 
of the placing of manometers up to 400 atmospheres, and serve to 
-gTaduate experimentally the manometers of hydraulic presses. 

Such a Tower would further admit of pendulums being fixed on 
at, each oscillation of which would last more than ^ minute. 

The Director of the Observatory at Paris, Admiral Mouchez, 
expresses a like opinion to the foregoing, accentuating the fact 
that an iron building such as the Eiffel Tower would be vastly 
superior for meteorological observations to a stone building. 

Seeing that masoni-y imparts to the instruments afiixed to it 

either heat or cold as the masonry itself may be affected, whereas 

in the case of iron the meteorological instruments would be as if 

entirely isolated in the air, consequently iron is incontostably 

•euperior for meteorological observations 


This distinguished astronomer attached to the Paris Observatory 
■comments as follows : — 

There can be no doubt but that the projected Tower will j)rove 
of great ul^lity for astronomical researches, on its summit, by the 
«se of spectroscopes the light of both sun and stars may be analysed 
.and the movements peculiar to the latter could be ascertained by 
the displacement of the rays, so much more accm-ately at 
an elevation of 300 metres than at the level of th , ground, on 
account of the clearness- of the utmosphere at su great a height 


A solar or lunar photographing apparatus could also be used witlii 
advantage particulairly at the passage of mercury, or wlien eclipses- 
take place near the horizon. 


Colonel Perrier having been consulted with reference to the- 
application of the Tower for optical telegraphy, fully confirms 
our view that such a Tower would render important aid in that 
direction and permit of communications which have hitherto been I 
mpossible. For reasons, however, vidiich may be readily undestood 
he remains silent with regard to localities and thus briefij'^ sums 
up some of the applications to which the Eiffel Tower may be put. 

Astro7iomy. — Law of refractions, spectroscopic tulluricrays. 3 

Vegetable Chemistry. — Vegetation at 300 metres high, com- 
position, carbonic acid. 

Metemvlogy. — ^Wiud, temperature, hj-gometry, electric con- 
dition, upper currents. 

Physical Science. — Deviation of a falling body, atmospheric 
clectiicity. Poncalt's experunent for demonstrating the rotation 
of the earth. 

War. — Optical telegraphy, and view oifered of the movements 
of the enemy. 

' Many other opinions might be ({uoted, but from the foregoing 
alone it cannot be doubted that, M. Eiffel's project has received 
the distinct and clear approval of men in the first rank of scientists . 


Total \\'cight of Metal 6500 Tons^ 

Made up as follows : — uprights with crosspieces ... 5190' 

Gallery of ist floor :— 70m X 16m X 4=4200m 

Chamber on 2nd floor 30m x 30m = 900m 

5100 a 100 kilogr. 

Tipper Chamber and platform of 100m ... 


The four arches at base 

Total ... tons 

The cost of which at 50 centimes per kilogramme put in 
position, gives 

Estimated cost of foundations and masonry massives 

Various additional -werk, such as glazing, cost of 
building the rooms in the Tower, &c., &c., 
estimated at ... ... ... ... 800,000 

Total cost of building proper , ... 4,905,000 

To which may be added the cost of the lifts, with engine s 250,000 ' 

Making the total cost ... ... ... ... 5,155,000 

Say in roimd figures ... ... .... £206,000- 

♦These figures may have to be slightly amended when the Tower is eompcletd. 



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